Washington, DC (July 24, 2014) – In recent years, changing technologies have presented courts with the question of how to protect both citizens’ privacy right and satisfy the demands of law enforcement. What's Old is New Again: Retaining Fourth Amendment Protections in Warranted Digital Searches – a new white paper by the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers' Fourth Amendment Advocacy Committee – addresses this important issue. Noting that while devices have changed, the Fourth Amendment has not, the report contends that the same Fourth Amendment protections governing traditional searches apply to digital searches.
NACDL President Jerry J. Cox: "The growing use of digital technologies does not mean the privacy rights enshrined in our Constitution have to be compromised. We have never allowed law enforcement unfettered access to search and seize physical property when looking for evidence of a crime. Clear limits must be established for the search and seizure of digital evidence as well. The recommendations contained in this report are a guide for how judicial and legislative bodies can protect Americans’ privacy rights, while still allowing law enforcement to do its job."
What’s Old is New Again begins with a discussion of the constitutional issues that arise with the search and seizure of digital devices and the data stored in them. According to the report, digital evidence should be considered "digital papers and effects," and is therefore best addressed by case law relating to searches of papers. The report then looks at warranted searches of digital devices, including applications for search warrants and the pre-search restrictions that magistrates can place on warrants. Finally, the report offers a comprehensive set of recommendations for legislative and judicial reform to the application and execution of warrants to search digital evidence.
Specifically, the report recommends that:
1. Magistrates should be required to impose pre-search mandates when necessary to ensure particularity of places to be searched or things to be seized.
2. The remedy for government agents' failure to follow pre-search mandates imposed by magistrates should be suppression of any evidence found as a result of the search.
3. Magistrates should continue to perform traditional post-search reasonable analyses.
4. Magistrates should require agents to foreswear reliance on the plain view doctrine.
5. A second warrant should be required for agents to obtain evidence of a crime not covered by the original warrant.
6. "Filter Teams" must be independent from the criminal investigation and prosecution and bound by the terms of the warrant.
7. Warrants should include provisions for the destruction or return of digital information as appropriate.
8. Agents must retain records of the particularities of the digital search, which should be shared with defendants in criminal cases.
9. Legislatures should pass laws to guide courts in analyzing the reasonableness of searches conducted pursuant to warrants containing pre-search requirements.
A full copy of What’s Old is New Again: Retaining Fourth Amendment Protections in Warranted Digital Searches can be downloaded here. For additional NACDL resources on Privacy and the Fourth Amendment, please visit http://www.nacdl.org/fourthamendment.
Pattern Cross-Examination for DNA and Biological Evidence: A Trial Strategy Guide
NACDL’s Pattern Cross-Examination for DNA and Biological Evidence will assist criminal defense practitioners in scoring points when cross-examining forensic experts in cases involving DNA and biological evidence. This resource contains thousands of questions that will help defense lawyers cross-examine challenging witnesses without reinventing the wheel with each new case. It includes pattern questions that can be used to dominate prosecution DNA experts and level the playing field at trial.
Cross-Examination of the Analyst in Drug Prosecutions (2nd Ed.) By James M. Shellow
Now in its second edition with some new material, James M. Shellow’s book offers what its title promises: ways of thinking about cross-examining the forensic analysts in drug cases. But the book is so much more than that. It offers a look inside the mind of one of the finest cross-examiners and defense lawyers the United States has produced in the last seventy years. This small book can inspire and direct you in making big changes in the way you defend your clients and think about the entire project of trying any case.
Justice For All, Justice Now White T-Shirt (Women’s)
This custom, vintage-faded NACDL t-shirt is 50% polyester, 25% cotton, and 25% rayon weighing 5.2 oz. and is lightwieght, flexible and soft, providing maximum comfort. It features the "Justice For All, Justice Now" slogan and Lady Liberty image on the front, with the NACDL logo on the back. Currently available in both men's and women's sizes in both black and white colors. View the full line-up of colors and sizes on our online store, as well as our other popular and best-selling t-shirt designs at: nacdl.org/store.
Drug Cases Resource Materials Collection - CD-ROM
NACDL’s Drug Cases Resource Materials Collection is the sweeping culmination of every single article of written materials ever published from each installment of NACDL's annual "Defending Modern Drug Cases" seminar. Totaling over 12,000 pages, this vast collection includes 12+ years of motions, briefs, reports, outlines, transcripts, case citations, scholarly articles, powerpoints and other written commentaries. This collection provides trial strategies and tactics you can immediately apply to your current cases.
Mental Illness & the Law: Addressing and Litigating Behavioral Health Disorders in Criminal Cases
Whether it is insanity, impairment, a disorder, or adolescent brain development; mental health and intellectual competence issues affect pretrial supervision, trial and sentencing, and your chances of successfully advocating for your impaired client. This training provides ideas and proven solutions to assist you in advocating for your client during trial, whether it be insanity defenses, jury selection, cross of expert witnesses, persuasion, or mitigation at sentencing.
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The National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers is the preeminent organization advancing the mission of the criminal defense bar to ensure justice and due process for persons accused of crime or wrongdoing. A professional bar association founded in 1958, NACDL's many thousands of direct members in 28 countries – and 90 state, provincial and local affiliate organizations totaling up to 40,000 attorneys – include private criminal defense lawyers, public defenders, military defense counsel, law professors and judges committed to preserving fairness and promoting a rational and humane criminal legal system.